Regular readers of the 8 Blog know that I spend a fair amount of time focusing on innovations in educational environments. I work to promote innovative instructional practices and focus on emergent technologies of promise. By communicating these areas, I hope to help to spread innovations.
I came across some research recently that estimated the “innovativeness” of individuals within a social system. In his work titled Diffusion of Innovations, Rogers (2003) categorized five different groups based on the degree to which they would adopt new ideas. The groups included: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. In Rogers’ conceptualization, innovators were the risk takers and the ones most willing to test uncharted waters. Despite representing only 2.5% of the population of a social system, innovators play a critical role in spreading new ideas. Innovators bring new ideas from the outside and serve as the gatekeepers and prophets for change.
On the opposite end of the spectrum, however, laggards are the ones most resistant to change. They are skeptical of innovations and need proof that a new idea works before they try it themselves. In Rogers’ estimation, 16% of any social system could be categorized as a laggard. “What about the other 81%?” you may be wondering. Roughly, 13.5% would be categorized as “early adopters.” Early adopters are similar to innovators in that they are open to experimentation and change. One key difference, however, is that early adopters are more likely to hold leadership positions and can help to spread innovations by dedicating resources to fuel the diffusion. The other 68% of the social system are evenly distributed among the early majority and late majority groups.
While categorizing people into different groups may help leaders identify some of the challenges with diffusing innovations, I think it might be more helpful to look at some of the other factors that influence the spread of new ideas. While Rogers identifies several elements that impact the spread of new ideas, I thought I’d focus on the one element where we may have the most impact: the social system. In her recent blog post on Edutopia, Alyssa Tormala identifies several strategies that school leaders should employ to create a “culture of innovation.” School leaders, Tormala writes, need to model innovation by communicating “when we’re taking a risk, asking for feedback, sharing any data that we gather, and then visibly self-assessing and reflecting on the results.” Additionally, school leaders need to empathize with the challenges that educators face when they encounter new ideas and celebrate whenever educators are willing to take risks. In his work with establishing the “innovator mindset,” George Couros identifies five characteristics of innovative organizations. While some of the characteristics are reflected in Tormala’s post, I think two characteristics stand out. Couros writes that innovations spread through relationships and in environments where sharing of ideas is supported. Innovations don’t spread if individuals don’t know (or trust) their colleagues or if they aren’t comfortable sharing their successes and failures. While I agree that leaders need to model this, they also need to create environments where supportive, collaborative relationships are developed.